What is anal fistula? How is it treated?

Anal fistulas are not self-healing. This thought will only cause time for the patient and worsen the situation. It is also suggested that advanced fistula formation triggers skin cancer in that area.

The treatment of anal fistula is surgical. Antibiotic therapy can only be used for support, it has no healing effect. Surgical treatment of the fistula involves the opening and scraping of this long canal with inflammation in the fistula tract. Anal sphincters will also be affected during this procedure. The magnitude of this influence is related to the surgeon’s experience and knowledge.

What happens if the fistula is not treated?

In this case, the fistula continues to develop and spread by branching and knotting over the years, and treatment becomes increasingly difficult. Continuous inflammatory process in the region, can go up to cancer. Because of the continuous inflamed discharge, fungus develops around the anus and itching occurs in the anal area.

What is Anal Fistula?

Anal fistula is an abnormal connection between the breech inner surface and the skin outside the breech. It is reminiscent of the ways the mole makes under the ground. However, the places where these roads pass are very important because there are muscles that are very important in human life in terms of their functions in this region. Once the fistula has occurred, it means that the inflammation will flow continuously. Spontaneous recovery is very rare and requires treatment.

What are the causes of anal fistula?

The most important cause of breech fistula and abscess is inflammation of the glands under the skin and between muscles in the anus. Causes of breech fistula are as follows:

Acute diarrhea attack, Foreign body or hard defecation traumas, Inflammatory anal fissures, Inflammatory anal hematomas, Intestinal parasites, Macular worms, Crohn’s disease, Ulcerative colitis, Tuberculosis, Intestinal fungi, Cancers, Intra-abdominal infiltrations, Severe genital infections

What are the symptoms of anal fistula?

·         Pain, swelling in and around the breech

·         Itching and burning in the breech

·         Difficulty in sitting

·         Redness in the breech

·         Feeling fullness from the rectum

·         Smelly or bloody discharge around the breech

·         Contamination in underwear

·         High fever

·         Painful urination

·         Constipation

How is fistula diagnosed?

The examination is often sufficient for diagnosis. It may be necessary to perform some imaging tests in cases where the flow is stopped or the fistula hole remains in the rectum. Some tests, such as MRI and colonoscopy, can be performed to determine the extent of the disease, where the fistula pathway is located, whether there is an abscess focal point inside, or if there is a fistula due to another disease. If simple fistula, colonoscopy may not be performed. But colonoscopy is useful if there is a recurrent fistula or if you are worried about another underlying disease.

Fistula Treatment Methods

Anal fistulas are not self-healing. This thought will only cause time for the patient and worsen the situation. It is also suggested that advanced fistula formation triggers skin cancer in that area.

For the treatment of anal fistula, intervention is absolutely necessary. Antibiotic therapy can only be used for support, it has no healing effect.

Surgical treatment

Surgical treatment of the fistula involves the opening and scraping of this long canal with inflammation in the fistula tract. Anal sphincters will also be affected during this procedure. The magnitude of this influence is related to the surgeon’s experience and knowledge.

During the operation, after opening the breech of the anesthetized patient with retractor, oxygenated water is given from the outer mouth of the fistula close to the skin and the position of the inner mouth of the breech is confirmed. The course of the fistula tract is also determined with the help of a special metal wire called stylet. The amount of muscle to be affected is then estimated and surgery is performed.

In cases where the fistula is too long, more complicated surgical procedures such as mucosal advancement flaps, late fistulotomy and seton administration can be performed.

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