Internal medicine is a branch of medicine in which internal organ diseases are diagnosed and non-surgical treatments are planned. Internal medicine deals with the structure, function and diseases of all organ systems in the body. Internal medicine is an important branch because it acts as a “connector” between other medicine disciplines.
In the light of current scientific developments and comprehensive physical examination based on the state-of-the-art methods, early and final diagnosis of diseases has become easier. For that purpose, various methods such as laboratory tests (blood, urine, stool etc.), radiological examinations (radiography, ultrasound, mammography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, bone density test etc.) as well as endoscopic examinations (upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy, colonoscopy etc.), electrocardiography, echocardiography are used. In internal medicine clinics of health institutions, diagnose, treatment and follow-up services are offered to any group of patients over 15 years old. The patients treated in internal medicine clinic are listed below.
Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases
Respiratory organs are responsible for transporting breathed air and gas exchange between air and blood. Upper respiratory tract consist of mouth, nasal cavity, sinuses, throat and larynx. Lower respiratory tract consist of trachea, bronchia, bronchiole and alveoli. The most common upper and lower respiratory tract diseases include colds, flu, sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma and COPD.
Infectious diseases can be triggered by various microbial agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites. These diseases can be transmitted in various ways and often affect the respiratory tract, digestive system, skin, eyes or ears. In order to prevent infectious diseases, it is important to know how the disease is transmitted and to have a vaccine against them if possible. Today, vaccines to provide protection against many infectious diseases have been developed. Different treatment options are considered depending on the cause and course of an infectious disease. For example, antibiotics are used for the treatment of bacterial infections.
Hypertension is a disorder in which a person’s blood pressure increases permanently. A major proportion of patients admitted to the general internal medicine clinic suffer from hypertension. The limit value for the diagnosis of hypertension, as accepted by the World Health Organization is 140/90 mmHg. The fact that person’s blood pressure is above these values indicates the presence of high blood pressure. Hypertension is a condition that cannot be determined for a long time. In most patients, high blood pressure does not cause any restrictions or symptoms for a long time. Because even slightly elevated blood pressure over a long period of time will damage the vascular system, this condition is very dangerous. Especially those with accompanying diseases such as high cholesterol, arteriosclerosis, stroke, heart attack and diabetes are under higher risk in this respect.
Diabetes or hyperglycaemia is a metabolic diseases characterized by a constantly elevated blood sugar level. There are two types of diabetes; Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes is common among children and adolescents. Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease, usually begins before the age of 20 years. In the case of autoimmune diseases, a person’s immune system attacks and damages to his/her own body cells. Type-2 diabetes, which is more common than Type-1, usually occurs after the age of 30. Genetic factors, overweight and sedentary life play an important role in occurrence of Type 2 diabetes.
A butterfly-shaped organ, the thyroid gland is located in the anterior neck. Thyroid hormones are responsible for different functions in the body. These hormones play an important role on metabolism, circulation, growth and mental state. Thus, thyroid diseases appear with many different symptoms. Two important hormones known as T3 and T4 are produced in the thyroid gland, which then get into the bloodstream. The thyroid gland requires protein and iodine to produce T3 and T4 hormones. Because iodine is not produced in the body, taking sufficient amount of iodine is essential for proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Thyroid diseases may involve as inadequate (hypothyroidism) or excessive hormone production (hyperthyroidism).
High levels of blood lipids such as triglycerides and cholesterol
Increased levels of blood lipids such as triglycerides and cholesterol are called as hyperlipidemia. An increased cholesterol value in the blood is called hypercholesterolemia. Because cholesterol is one of the blood lipids, hypercholesterolemia is also a type of hyperlipidemia. Increased high blood lipids are considered to be an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis and thus cardiovascular diseases. Thus, they should be treated.
Digestive system disorders such as liver, stomach and gall bladder
Inflammation and infections as well as cancers are among the most common digestive system diseases and can occur at any age. By regular examinations in internal medicine or gastroenterology clinics, it is possible to detect many diseases at an early stage and to treat them before progressing. Endoscopy and colonoscopy examinations are very useful in the diagnosis of diseases related with esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines and rectal region. The most common liver disease is hepatitis. Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver cells. It is usually caused by viruses and there are three types of hepatitis including Hepatitis A, B, C. The most common gallbladder disease is the formation of gallstones and its treatment is the surgical removal of the gallbladder.
Lung diseases are among serious health problems. One-sixth of all deaths in the world results from lung diseases. Infectious diseases such as bronchitis or pneumonia are common lung diseases. These infections are usually caused by bacteria, but viruses or fungi may also cause infection in the lungs. In addition to infectious diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (chronic asthma and bronchitis) and lung cancers are also among important health problems. Chronic asthma and bronchitis occurs as a consequence of that bronchia shows tendency to contract in response to stimuli such as cold, cigarette smoke, dust, or effort.
Important kidney diseases include acute or chronic renal failure, kidney stones, infections, tumors and cysts. Renal infections are named as glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis depending on their locations on the kidney. Kidney diseases are determined based on changes in urine. Changes in color, transparency and amount of urine may be seen. For example, cloudy urine may indicate excessive protection excretion due to inflammation of the kidneys. Sudden-onset high blood pressure, edema, headache and blurred vision are the symptoms of renal failure.
Anemia and other blood diseases
Anemia is a disease arising from the lack of enough red blood cells. Red blood cells are responsible for transportation of oxygen from lungs to tissues. The most common cause of anemia is iron deficiency. However, anemia may result from many factors such as vitamin b12, folic acid deficiency, hemorrhages, kidney diseases, cancers, and bone marrow diseases. Other blood diseases include both benign diseases such as bleeding and clotting disorders and malignant diseases such as leukemia and lymphomas. These diseases are generally called as hematological diseases, which are typically diagnosed and treated in the internal medicine department.
Rheumatism is a collective term used for various musculoskeletal system disorders that are not caused by injuries or tumors and accompanied by pain. Today, there are 400 known rheumatic diseases. Rheumatic diseases may affect almost every organs in addition to bones, joints, joint capsules, tendons or muscles. This is because the connective tissue structures involved in rheumatism are found almost everywhere in the body. Rheumatic diseases are characterized by regional symptoms such as joint pain, swelling, redness, restricted mobility, and stiffness. Also, non-joint symptoms such as fever, weakness, weight loss, skin rashes, dry mouth or eye dryness may be seen.
Musculoskeletal system disorders
Musculoskeletal diseases which are also called degenerative rheumatic diseases, are diseases caused by primarily wear and tear and secondly aging. The main triggers of these diseases are not infection unlike rheumatic diseases. These diseases include osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, tennis elbow, joint bursa irritation, muscle cramps and strains.
General Health Status Check
Digestive System Diseases
(Ulcer, Reflux, Gastritis, Colitis, etc.)
09.00 – 18.00
09.00 – 14.00